Nollywood: Fast, Furious, and Misunderstood

This weeks studies had us focus on Global Film ,and had us explore the two markets of Nollywood, and Korean Cinema. Now our tutor brought up a great point; we know Hollywood, we might have heard of Bollywood, but have any of us heard of Nollywood? In my case, I had not! And I am glad I have now. This brings us to the question, why have so many of u not heard of this sensation that is taking the movie industry by a storm?

“Nollywood compels attention from those outside its field
of operation and cultural vision, not that the industry cares for any
attention from the outside.” (Okome, 2007)

Nollywood is exactly what it sounds like, Nigeria’s answer to Hollywood. But saying just this would sell the industry short. Even to this day, despite finding success all over the world, Nollywood has stayed true to many African ideals and customs, and continues to be made by Africans, for Africans. Since its conception in Lagos in the 1990s, it has swiftly grown to account for more than 1844 movies in 2013 alone. By 2009, it had America’s Hollywood in becoming the second largest movie industry in the world, second to only India’s Bollywood (Bright, 2015). The secret behind this is this: cheap production, quantity and the extremely fast way in which the movies are created.

Nollywood is created by Nigerians, for Nigerians. they depict their every day lives, with a movie industry flair. The have incredibly short shoot times, as little as 5 days per film. This has enabled Nollywood creators to flood the market with their films. These are not blockbuster films, but their relatability in African culture through themes such as love, corruption and betrayal has garnered them attention and praise.

Despite never needing to find success in the first place, Nollywood is still viewed by the industry as a niche market, or something exotic. A Nollywood film would never win the “Best Picture”award, they would instead be confined to their own category, “Best Foreign Film”or even “Best Nollywood Picture”. It seems like Nollywood cannot exist outside the framework of Hollywood, despite it continuing to show that it stands out and on its own two feet.

Nollywood provides an escape for people as all movies do. People who identify as coming from that country find a kinship, a connection with the movies as they see problems that they face brought to the front, rather than pushed to the back. They see people who they identify with being represented on the screen, which empowers them. They represent real people, real lives, and real stories. It is the beauty of this that has taken the movie industry by a storm. But, rather funnily, they don’t need our recognition. Onookome Okome (2007) states this fact in her exploration of Nollywood; the inward view of these films establish the industry as an “autonomous local expression”. They have their autonomy, with or without the rest of the world.

Sophie Abrahams

Reference list:

Krings, M & Okome, O. 2013. ‘Global Nollywood: The transnational Dimensions of an African Video Film Industry’, Indiana University Press, 2013. p. 25-43

Okome, O. 2007. ‘Nollywood: spectatorship, audience and the sites of consumption’ Postcolonial Text, 3.2, pp. 1-21.

This is Nollywood 2009, video, California Newsreel, 2nd December, viewed 5th August, <;

Bright, J. (2015). Meet ‘Nollywood’: The second largest movie industry in the world. [Blog] Fortune. Available at: [Accessed 8 Aug. 2017].






Australia: Education Haven

Stock Image, International Students

I don’t think many students realise just how good we have it. We have the opportunity to go to university, we have our fees subsidized and postponed until we have our life together, we get the support of our government for necessities such as microwaveable pasta, coffees for our 8:30 AM tutes and rent (thanks Centerlink), and many support services at our disposal. For students with a slightly different background, the story is very different.

I work almost every night at a local Thai restaurant, and the people I’ve met there have opened up my eyes to how hard it is for our international students. I’m the only Australian born person there, and many of the people I work with are diligently studying. They face so many obstacles while trying to get an education, such as visa problems, having to pay all the fees up front, job shortages (don’t even get me started on the fact that most international students are earning way less than the minimum wage) and last but not least, discrimination.

‘International education is not the rich intercultural experience it could be’ (Marginson, 2012)

We as a nation believe ourselves to be open to all cultures, to be accepting and inviting to others and to be compassionate. From what I have heard from our fellow international students, this is not always the case. I used to be of the mindset that international students preferred to make friends with other international students, as they would feel a kin ship that they would not feel from me, and of course I felt like the language barrier would keep us from forming a friendship. I admit that this was naive of me, and I have come to know that many international students would love to have more Australian friends, if we would give them a chance.

I have been told that my coworkers would try to make friends with other Australians, but would either be met with discrimination  or annoyance. They love to talk with Australians as it helps them improve their English, it helps accustom them to an Australian lifestyle and it overall improves their experiences while studying. But the intimidation of already formed cliques, rebuttals and generally feeling like an outsider gets in their way.

At best international education becomes intercultural education in which self-forming individuals engage with each other in a cosmopolitan relational space criss-crossed by changing differences. They are open to each other and learn much from each other” (Marginson P.61)

As Marginson states above, we both have so much to learn from each other. The very degree that we are studying is a field which requires us to be open minded and understanding, and improve our knowledge along the way. In the end, we are all striving to the same goal, why can’t we come together and experience it as one?

Let’s throw away our differences and make Australia live up to the the multicultural  image of a haven of education that so many people see it to be!

Sophie Abrahams

Reference List:

Marginson, S 2012, International education as self -formation, University of Wollongong, Pp 1 – 11.

Globalisation: The Cost of Convenience

I challenge you to put down your phone, and look around you in your next morning commute. I did this once while living in Sydney and observed my fellow passengers, and marveled the fact that every single person was on their phone. People were texting, scrolling, searching and basically just burning their time with their little machines with screens. Now this might not shock you (it certainly didn’t shock me) but what may is how these devices make their way into our palms, and the real cost behind the convenience of smartphones.

Globalisation as defined by O’Shaughnessy and Stadler is as follows:

‘Globalisation refers to an international community influenced by technological development and economic, political, and military interests. It is characterised by a worldwide increase in interdependence, interactivity, interconnectedness, and the virtually instantaneous exchange of information.

Globalisation could lead to the homogenisation of world cultures, or to hybridisation and multiculturalism’  (O’Shaughnessy and Stadler, P 458)

Now globalisation itself seems like an amazing step in the evolution of human society, and from the quote above we can see many possible outcomes as to how it could benefit us. It could lead to an interconnected world, working in harmony to utilize information, communicate and work together to make our world a better, more interdependent multicultural safe haven. Sadly, as with most things, it is not that simple. An example of globalisation is the outsourcing of labor by many major companies, and one example is our beloved Apple Inc.

(Supply Chain 247, 2013)

Apple has for years outsourced the manufacturing of Apple Iphones and Ipads to many different countries, but lets look at the big one; China. See above Apple’s supply chain. As we can see, the materials are sourced from many outside countries, and are then brought to china to begin the manufacturing process. Now, the main company handling this is Foxconn, and not surprisingly this company AND Apple have recently come under scrutiny by Amnesty International and Afrewatch after a report came out highlighting the child labor supporting manufacturing process that concerns some batteries found in Apple products.

Now some may say, “Well this is normal, so many companies do this to keep the cost down for consumers.”. This may be the case for some, but studies have actually shown that if Apple were to move its manufacturing process to America (which would also create thousands more jobs), the Iphone would only cost $2-$3 MORE (Kabin, 2013). The reason why they decided to do otherwise was so that they could maximise the profit cut for the corporation heads, and ensure that the work is done as fast as possible. Now, how do you think the work is done so fast? The workers in China work 12 hours, no break 7 days a week. Plus, if they were to buy an Iphone for themselves, it would cost them many years of hard, manual labor to do so.

McLuhen’s view of a Global Village is idyllic and in some respects is emerging, given our growing exploration of our own and other cultures around us, but things like this are in my opinion turning back the clock. We sit here with the ultimate machine of convenience in our hands, while the hands that created them are sore, tired, and struggling. The dichotomy of this is the exact opposite effect of what globalisation is supposed to cause, and something needs to be done.

Sophie Abrahams

Reference List:

O’Shaughnessy M & Stadler J, 2012, ‘Globalisation’, Media and Society, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 458 – 471.  

Kabin, B 2013, Apple’s iPhone: Designed in California But Manufactured Fast All Around the World (Infographic), Entrepreneur, weblog post, September 11, viewed 5 August 2017 <;.

Supply Chain 247, 2013, Apple Supply Chain [ONLINE], available at:, assessed 5 August 2017.


Week 2: Reality, Augmented.

This week we delved deeper and deeper into the abstract, where we found a plethora of interesting and boundary-pushing artists ripe for exploration. I realized that technology has really made it easy for us to express ourselves if you think about it (albeit its questionable authenticity); whatever you visualize, you can more than likely create it with a few clicks of a button, or you can easily find someone else who’ll do it for you via the web.

I suppose the closest you’ll get to seeing something through the eyes of many different people would be our series of group works inspired by David Hockney’s Cameraworks; a work named brushesreduxphotocollages.

(CAVA101&2, brushesreduxphotocollages, 2017)


                           “It takes time to see these pictures—you can look at them for a long time, they invite that sort of looking. But, more importantly, I realized that this sort of picture came closer to how we actually see, which is to say, not all-at-once but rather in discrete, separate glimpses which we then build up into our continuous experience of the world.” –David Hockney 

This quote from Hockney is the essence of what we tried to replicate in our work. We took pictures with an Ipad via a program called Brushes Redux. We then started to augment the picture by drawing, tracing and coloring over it. After this,we then pieced all the pieces together to view the image as a whole once again. We glimpsed the world around us and then we hoped to share those unique glimpses. This piece is a combined effort of the many different and creative minds that reside in our class, where each one of us put a unique spin on an image we viewed as a whole. We augmented reality through  our own eyes and we created our visions in place of (or mixed with) our perceived surroundings. This idea of personally augmented reality gives dimension and  depth to works, and I feel like the viewing of them is more personal, and thus more memorable.

(Hockney, The Blue Guitar, 1977)

For research tin class I read The Blue Guitar; a collection of etchings by David Hockney, inspired by the words of Wallace Stevens, who was inspired by paintings by Picasso. I felt liken this string of inspiration really resonated with me, because you can see how each piece and each artist affected each other, and with myself I take great inspiration from other artists. This research helped me understand that it’s not a bad thing to be greatly influenced by someone else, and that often it’s actually beneficial.


Reference List:

  1. Hockney, D. (1977). Manhattan Rare Books. [online] Available at: %5BAccessed 20/03/2017]
  2. Cava101&102, 2017, brushesreduxphotocollages, Ipad Image
  3. Hockney, D 2017. The Blue Guitar, book, [Accessed 20/03/2017] <;.


Week 1 – A Study in Unorthadox and the Ephemeral

All artists and practitioners seem to have an idea of what is ‘art’ and what is ‘not art’. Some dare to push the boundaries of these supposed closed boxes. One such creator is Allan Kaprow, and this is one of the practitioners we have studied this week. Through studying the likes of Kaprow and Marcel Duchamp, we discussed the technique of ‘framing’ a piece,and how something such as a urinal can become aesthetically pleasing. These discussions have urged me to think far more about the abstract than I think I ever have.


Kaprow was a great innovative mind active in the art world of the 1960’s. His series of Happenings are great examples of ephemeral art; art that is appreciated for a short time, then disappears without a trace. We studied his piece called Fluids, and we aimed to come up with a piece which was inspired by its transitory nature.

My group and I came up with a performance piece which ended up being a lot more confronting and deep than I think we intended. It kind of evolved from the group before us; they engineered the idea of alienation and division, and we sort of took the idea and ran far far away with it. We sat on some stools, adopted a standoffish stance and scrawled the words “Name Here” on a whiteboard. As one by one our audience walked in, they took the cue and wrote their names, only to have them rubbed out again in silence by one of our group members. One  by one they left confused, and slightly berated. After we finished, I think some of the other members of the class thought we hated them (or they hated us!). It was a really fascinating experiment, because we had no idea how the audience was going to react! It was interesting to see some people fight back, and others just leave, disinterested. This is the point of a piece like this; it urges us to think deeper and more personally about the effects of the work, and it tests our understanding of art itself as an experience; which is much like Kaprow’s ephemeral piece Fluids in its cause and effect.

Another activity that we participated in was a recreation of 4′ 33” by John Cage. In this piece we were asked to sit and just observe something for 4 minutes and 33 seconds, and I decided to observe a dirty old picnic bench with doodles on top. What I found during this time was that I got bored easily, I got sleepy, but I also became much more aware of my surroundings, and was hyper aware of the sounds around me. To me, this was the beauty of the piece, because not only was I examining someone else’s penmanship on this bench, I was also appreciating the sound of silence and rain more than I ever have. This is where the change happened; this is where I began to actually ‘get’ what we were talking about, and it felt empowering.


Reference list:

  1. Marcel Duchamp 1964, Fountain, Procelain, Unconfirmed: 360 x 480 x 610 mm, Tate Modern, Britain.
  2. Hopper, D 1967, Allan Kaprow, Fluids happening, 1967, photograph, viewed March 2017, <>.
  3. Kaprow, A 1967, Fluids Happening, Performance art.
  4. Cage, J 1947-1948, 4’33”, musical score.

Sol LeWitt; a study in Instructional Art

MEDA102 Assignment 1

Sol LeWitt – Instructional Art – Sophie Abrahams


For this assignment I am going to analyse Sol Lewitt’s “Wall Drawing #1136” (2004) in regards to the instructions and procedure actions it uses, and examine the history of instructional art and how it relates to the topics we have been discussing in our tutorials. Instructional art is the genre of art that is not created by the artist; rather, the artist conjures up a list of instructions to be decoded and executed. The result is a completely unique piece of work, that exhibits the raw interpretations of its’ creator. This analysis will aim to research and explain exactly what instructional art is, provide examples, and link it all back to our core studies in MED102.

Sol LeWitt made his name being a core leader of the conceptual movement, because of his belief of artists as generators of ideas. LeWitt believed that the idea itself can be art, in its purest form (The Art Story 2016). There are 2 main parts to this piece by Sol LeWitt; the instructions, and the execution. The instructions are printed on normal pieces of paper and are signed by Sol LeWitt. They are composed of both a written component and a diagram, posing a code for the decoder to figure out in order to execute the piece. This certificate is to be always with the piece, and is in a format which is consistent with all of Sol LeWitt’s work prior to his death in 2007. This emphasises the importance of the finished artwork to the fundamental meaning of the conceptual idea.

A Wall Divided Vertically into Fifteen Equal Parts, Each with a Different Line Direction and Colour, and All Combinations 1970 by Sol LeWitt 1928-2007

Sol LeWitt, 2004, Wall Drawing #1136, painting, Fraenkel Gallery, California

b8af1d650fabe758c072387606101eb6-1zuh1zi (1)

Sol LeWitt, 2004, Wall Drawing #1136, image, viewed August 10 2016

The execution of the piece is composed of a mixture of curved and straight lines of colour that is painted onto the surface of a wall using every primary and secondary colour plus grey. This curve is made up of 9 of these lines of colour, interloping each other and snaking along the wall. The same colours appear again as vertical bands that make up the background. There is no area in the piece left empty of colour, and every band is the same width. This piece was first installed in the Fraenkel Gallery in San Francisco, California in September 2004, and was first drawn by Marta Ayala, Sachiko Cho, Matt Dejong, Amanda Eicher, Melissa Levin, Amy Rathbone, Rick Salas and Paul Wackers. The piece is supposed to be a conceptual one, one which can be drawn over and over and still retain the same meaning. The wall drawing is supposed to be inherently collaborative and participatory, which is depicted by the collective way in which it is executed.

The piece directly relates to what we are studying in our tutorials and lectures. I’m going to refer in particular to instructions and procedure actions. In week 3 we explored the use of instructions in art, as we explored the concept of instructions themselves. We also tried our hand at making some of Sol LeWitt’s art ourselves, which helped us to further understand how instructional art works. We created our own flow charts, which gave me a sort of inside look at creating instructional art. The processes that Sol LeWitt became evident when we began the activities, as the problems with conversion and translation became obvious. These issues can become frustrating when someone is trying to explain the piece, but perhaps that is the point of these artworks. The point is that art is interpretable by anyone, despite the intent. Sol LeWitt just used these things to his advantage and enhanced his artworks by using them.

Many other artists have created pieces like these, such as Yoko Ono. In 1962, Yoko Ono did a series of instructional paintings at AG Gallery in New York. The pieces were made up of just blank canvases and instructions. Ono stated in her 1995 book Instruction Paintings, “I was totally excited by the idea and its visual possibilities. To make the point that the instructions were not themselves graphic images, I wanted the instructions to be typed” (Ono 1995). Ono then created a further set of instructional pieces in 1999; Imagine, Yes, Touch, Fly, Breathe, Reach, Forget, Feel, Dream, Open, Remember. These pieces were linen canvases with single words accompanied, to further enhance the experience of instructional paintings. These pieces directly correlate with LeWitt’s work and ideas.

Through the analysis of this specific artist, it is easy to see its influence on modern art. Our studies into instruction and procedure actions have further explored these concepts and has provided me with more ideas on how to execute similar concepts in works of my own. As artists we need to think about the deeper meaning of creative concepts, and how they influence the audiences that come into contact with them.


Reference List:


  1. 2016, Artist Sol LeWitt, The Art Story, viewed 10 August 2016,
  2. Gurney, S 2016, Instruction Pieces, Yoko Ono, viewed 10 August 2016,
  3. Altshuler, B 2015, Art by Instruction and the Pre-History of do it, viewed 10 August 2016,
  4. Straine, S 2010, Wall Drawing #1136, Tate, viewed 10 August 2016,
  5. Sol LeWitt, 2004, Wall Drawing #1136, painting, Fraenkel Gallery, California
  6. Sol LeWitt, 2004, Wall Drawing #1136, image, viewed August 10 2016



Brands these days have exploded to include just about everything we do and see. Everything is owned by a company, and each one of these companies have a brand. It will not be long until people become brands, living and breathing advertisements for companies, using human empathy and sympathy in order to make the consumer feel comfortable and more inclined to use that specific brand.
For example, take the movie The Truman Show; Truman in this instance is essentially his own brand; a brand that encapsulates all that he does while in reality not granting him any reward. He is exploited by the company around him to advertise products and services, all the while this is done without him knowing.
Some critics say that this was an accurate premonition of modern society’s obsession with “reality” T.V. Think about it; is the Truman brand really that different from that of the Kardashian Empire? Both brands encapsulate the world and both brands transcend normal advertisement boundaries!


Personal Branding: Zoella

The age that we live in is an age of a new type of celebrity; the Lifestyle Celeb. These glorious human beings are who we strive to be, they are our goals and they are our friends. At least, this is true for fans of these lifestyle gurus. These celebrities perfectly cultivate an online presence, and only put up what they want us to see! So really when you are absorbing their content, you are really only seeing the highlight reel of their lives.


An example of this type of personal branding is Zoella. Zoella has cultivated a humongous online following through her YouTube channel, her Instagram, and her Twitter. She has done this so well that the advertisements that she does are blended seamlessly into her brand. She now has 2 books out, a makeup line and even a wax figure of herself in Madame Toussauds! But, we have to keep in mind that this is not who she really is. That’s the only problem with these internet celebrities; we never really know who they are.


Cities Skylines: User Generated Content

If you’re a gamer, just think for a second; what makes games continue to grab your attention and make you want to play? For me, it is the readily available downloadable content, whether it is paid for or not. Usually this content is made by the game’s publisher, and is available for a price. However, there are huge communities of creators who make digital content for games to share with the wider community, free for use.


Companies are fully aware of these communities, and they can choose to embrace the wider community or reject it. Personally, I think that when the user generated community is embraced it enhances the game play amazingly! Take Cities Skylines. This Sim City replica has generated hundreds of thousands of pieces of user generated content, making the possibilities endless for what you can create in game! This is a good example of a company that has embraced the user generated content surrounding its brand, and it’s serving them pretty well!